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Vocabularies & Specific words in Website
From: Longman; Dictionary of Contemporary English

Chiang Mai


lofty (adj): literary lofty mountains, buildings etc are very high
precincts (n): the area that surrounds an important building
Lakhon: classical Thai dance drama
Li-kay: Thai folk opera
intricate (adj): containing many small parts or details that all work or fit together
Naga: king of snake/ Giant Serpent in Buddhism myth
flamboyance (n): brightly coloured and easily noticed
esthetic (adj): a designed in a beautiful way
Stupa: pagoda
allegedly (adv): used when reporting something that other people say is true, although there is no proof

Rice farming & Buffalo

sustenance (n): food that keeps people strong and healthy; nourishment
Ploughing Ceremony: an ancient Brahmin ritual held at Sanam Luang(Royal field) across from the Grand Palace in Bangkok
winnowing (n): to blow the chaff (=outer part) away from grain
ploughing (n): to turn over the earth using a plough so that seeds can be planted
sheaf (n): a bunch of wheat, corn etc tied together after it has been cut
threshing (n): to separate the grain from the rest of corn, wheat etc, by beating it with a special tool or machine
peasant (n): someone in a poor country or in former times, who does farm work on the piece of land where they live
castrate (v): to remove the sexual organs of a male animal or a man
swamp (n): l and that is always very wet or slightly covered with water
wallow (v): roll around in mud, water etc for pleasure
hoof (n): the hard foot of an animal such as a horse, cow etc
suckle (v): if a baby or young animal suckles, it sucks milk from a breast
would-be mother (n): has a possibility to be a mother
natal (adj): connected with birth
dexterity (n): the ability to be very quick and skilful with your hands
antics (n): behaviour that seems strange, funny, silly, or annoying
marvel (v): to feel great surprise or admiration for something, especially someone's behaviour


Tractable (adj): easy to control or deal with
temperament (n): the emotional part of someone's character, especially how likely they are to be happy, angry etc
elongated (adj): longer than normal
dextrous (adj): able to use your hands in a skilful way
chisel (v): to cut wood or stone into a particular shape
acacia (n): tree with small yellow or white flowers that grows in warm countries
wean (v): to gradually stop feeding a baby or young animal on its mother's milk and start giving it ordinary food:
cicada (v): an insect that lives in hot countries, has large transparent wings, and makes a high singing noise
chirp (v): if a bird or insect chirps, it makes short high sounds
perch (v): to sit on top of, or on the edge of, something

Panda Bear

ward off (v): to do something to prevent something such as an illness, danger, or attack from harming you:
intestinal (adj): the long tube that takes food from your stomach out of your body
poacher (n): someone who catches or shoots animals, birds, or fish on private land without permission
sedentary (adj): a sedentary job is done while sitting down, and without moving around very much
trot (n): a fairly slow way of running in which you take short steps
startle (v): to make someone suddenly surprised or slightly shocked:
chipmunk (n): small animal similar to a squirre with black lines on its fur
intimacy (n): a state of having a close personal relationship with someone
entrust (v): to make someone responsible for doing something important


prominent (adj): well-known and important
distinctive (adj): having a special quality, character, or appearance that is different and easy to recognize
eponymous (adj): the eponymous character in a book, film, or play is the character whose name forms its title
artisan (n): someone who does skilled work with their hands; craftsman
vessel (n): a container for holding liquids
vat (n): a very large container for storing liquid such as whisky or dye, when they are being made
mediums (n): way of expressing your ideas, especially as a writer or an artist
enchanting (adj): very attractive


evergreen forest (n): forest that has trees or bush that do not lose their leaves in winter
deciduous forest (n): forest that has trees lose their leaves in winter
swamp forest (n): forest that has wet land trees


ghee (n): melted butter made from the milk of a cow or buffalo, used in Indian cooking
condiment (n): a powder or liquid, such as salt or ketchup that you use to give special taste to food
predominate (v): to have the most importance or influence, or to be most easily noticed
prevalent (adj): common at a particular time or in a particular place

Royal Project

slash (v): to violently cut or try to cut something with a knife, sword
promulgate (v): to make a new law come into effect by announcing it officially
legislation (n): a law or set of laws
eradicate (v): to completely get rid of something such as a disease or a social problem
propensity (n): a natural tendency to behave in a particular way
thrive (v): if something such as a company or plant thrives, it becomes very successful or very strong and healthy
equitable (adj): an equitable action, process etc treats everyone in an equal way; fair
allotment (n): an amount or share of something such as money or time that is given to someone or something, or the process of doing this
predominant (adj): more powerful, more common, or more easily noticed than others
ethnic (adj): connected with a particular race, nation, or tribe and their customs and traditions



Grand Palace

palisade(n): a fence made of strong pointed poles, used for defence in past times
masonry(n): the stones and mortar (=material which holds stones together) from which a building, wall etc is made
forts (n): a strong building or group of buildings used by soldiers or an army for defending an important place
coronation(n): the ceremony at which someone is officially made king or queen
monarch(n): a king or queen
regalia(n): traditional clothes and decorations, used at official ceremonies
realm(n): a general area of knowledge, interest, or thought
octagonal (adj): a flat shape with eight sides and eight angles
credential(n): a letter or other document which proves your good character or your right to have a particular position
envoy(n): someone who is sent to another country as an official representative
robe(v): to be dressed in a particular way
palanquin(n): a box-shaped container with a seat or bed inside it for one person, carried on poles by other people
commemorate(v): to do something to show that you remember and respect someone important or an important event in the past
centenary(n): the day or year exactly 100 years after a particular event
lying-in-state(n): the period of time when people can come and see the body of someone such as a president or king who has died, to show their respect
tonsure(n): the act of removing all the hair from the top of your head to show that you are a monk
puberty (n): the stage of physical development during which you change from a child to an adult able to have children
repose(n): a state of calm or comfortable rest

The Emerald Buddha temple

reign(n): the period of time during which someone is king or queen
entity (n): something that exists as a single and complete unit
canon (n): a generally accepted rule or standard on which an idea, subject, or way of behaving is based
pantheon(n): a temple built in honour of all gods
flake off (v): to break off in small thin pieces
flock to(v): to go to a place in large numbers because something interesting or exciting is happening there
gilt (n): a thin shiny material, such as gold or something similar, used to cover objects for decoration
motif (n): a small picture or pattern used to decorate something plain
deed(n): literary something someone does that is very good or very bad
drown(v): to die from being under water for too long or to kill someone in this way
enlightenment (v): the state in the Buddhist and Hindu religions, of no longer having any human desires, so that you are united spiritually with the universe
hollow (adj): having an empty space inside
customary (adj): something that is customary is normal because it is the way something is usually done
ironically(adv): [sentence adverb] used when talking about a situation that seems strange, unexpected, and often amusing
inauguration(n): an opening of a building or service for the first time or a start of a public event with a ceremony
accession (n): a process in which someone becomes king, queen, president
successor (n): someone who takes a position previously held by someone else
congregation (n): a group of people gathered together in a church
edifice (n): a building, especially a large one
celestial (adj): related to the sky or heaven
superstructure (n): a structure that is built on top of the main part of something such as a ship or building
verse(n): a set of lines of poetry that forms one part of a poem, and that usually has a pattern that is repeated in the other parts
slab(n): a thick flat four-sided piece of a hard material such as stone
embed(v): to fix something firmly and deeply in a surface or solid object

Wat Phra Chetuphol Wimolmungklaram

pedestal (n): the base on which a pillar or statue stands
descendant(n): someone who is related to a person who lived a long time ago direct descendant (=from one father or mother to the next)
inlay(n): a material which has been set into the surface of furniture, floors etc for decoration, or the pattern made by this
mother–of–pearl(n): a pale-coloured hard smooth shiny substance that forms the inside of some shellfish, and is used for making buttons, jewelry etc
ecclesiastical (adj): connected with a certain religion or its priests
sovereign(n): a king or queen
rockery(n): part of a garden where there are rocks with small plants growing between them
notche(n): a V-shaped cut in a surface or edge
rim(n): the outside edge of something circular
auspicious(adj): likely to be successful
gabled (adj): having one or more upper end of a house wall where it joins with a sloping roof and makes a shape like a triangle
tetrahedron (n): solid shape with four sides
porticos (n): a covered entrance to a building, consisting of a roof supported by pillars
inscribe (v): to carefully cut, print, or write words on something, especially on the surface of a stone or coin
cloister(n): a covered passage that surrounds one side of a square garden in a church, monastery etc
Sanskrit (n): an ancient language of India
hermit(n): someone who lives alone and has a simple way of life, usually for religious reasons
prosody(n): the rules for arranging the patterns of sounds and beats in poetry, or the study of these rules

Wat Arun Rachawararam

gracefully(adv): behaving in a polite and pleasant way
subsequently (adv): after an event in the past
encrusted (adj): covered with a thin hard layer of something
pavilion (n): a large, light structure that is built to be used for only a short time especially for public entertainments or exhibitions

Jim Thompson House

liberate (v): to free someone from feelings or conditions that make their life unhappy or difficult
dismantle(v): to take a machine or piece of equipment apart so that it is in separate pieces
quest (n): a long search for something such as truth or knowledge
authenticity (n): the quality of being real or true
adhere(v): to continue to behave according to a particular rule, agreement, or belief
employ(v): to use a particular method or skill in order to do something
chandelier(n): a large round structure for holding candles or lights that hang from the ceiling and is decorated with many small pieces of glass
electrify(v): to change a railway so that it uses electrical power, or to make electricity available in a particular area
concession(n): something that you allow someone to have in order to end an argument or a disagreement
decree(n): an official command or decision, especially one made by the ruler of a country
astrologer(n): someone who uses astrology to tell people about their character, life, or future
virtue (n): oral goodness of character and behaviour
dictate(n): an order, rule, or principle that you have to obey
charter(n): a statement of the principles, duties, and purposes of an organization

National Science Museum

metallurgy(n): the scientific study of metals and their uses
wickerwork(n): objects made from thin dry branches or reeds woven together
specimen(n): a single example of something